MSW Management May 2014 : Page 56

Advances in Energy… From Waste Today, some 30% of our waste is recycled and another 10% goes to waste-to-energy facilities while the rest is landfilled. BY LJUPKA ARSOVA AND HARVEY GERSHMAN ncreasingly, as communities focus on sending less waste to landfills, waste reduction and recycling initiatives are implemented in conjunction with energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies to manage what remains post-recycling. The most prominent technologies for produc-tion of EfW are mass-burn combustion with energy recovery, gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion. This article provides an update on the significant projects advancing in the EfW market in the US. Thermal technologies include direct com-bustion of MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with energy recovery (mass burn), gasification, and pyrolysis. These technologies are designed to process mixed waste, nonrecyclable, or hard-to-recycle materials. I Council, December 2013.) Most of these plants were built in the 1980s and the 1990s. Six existing plants have added capacity in the past decade: Lee County, FL, 636 tons per day (tpd); Hillsborough County, FL, 600 tpd; Olmsted County, MN, 200 tpd; Pope/Douglas County, MN, 120 tpd; Honolulu, HI, 900 tpd; and the Table 1 Gasification technology vendors and projects Technology vendor Level of development Type of technology Gasification & bio-catalytic fermentation city of Perham, MN, 100 tpd. One new plant is under construction in Palm Beach County, FL, and has a design capacity of 3,000 tpd of MSW. One plant was permanently closed (Biddeford, ME, 600 tpd) and four became inactive or were temporarily closed: New Hanover, NC, 500 tpd; Jackson, MI, 200 tpd; Red Wing, Feedstock Final Product Projects Fayetteville, Arkansas: pilot plant Vero Beach, Florida: commercial scale plant Sherbrooke, Quebec: pilot plant Westbury, Quebec: demonstration plant Edmonton, Alberta: commercial plant under commissioning Varennes, Quebec, and Pontotoc, Mississippi: commercial plants under development Durham, NC: pilot plant Sierra BioFuels, Nevada, and Fulcrum Brighton Biofuels, Colorado: commercial scale plants under development Castellgali, Spain: R&D plant Ottawa, Canada: operating demonstration plant and commercial plant under contract INEOS Bio Commercial Biomass; MSW future Ethanol Direct Combustion Direct combustion of MSW with energy recovery (mass burn) is a mature technol-ogy and the most commonly used MSW conversion technology in the US. At mass burn facilities, waste is combusted mini-mally or with no front-end processing, and heat generated from combustion creates steam. This steam is used in district heating networks or industrial applications, or to power turbine generators for electricity production. Water condensed out of the steam is cycled back and reused, and gases created by combustion are filtered through advanced air pollution control technologies. The combustion process and cleaning of the gases produce ash, which is treated and processed to remove metals for recycling. The ash can be used as alternative daily cover (ADC) at landfills or as construction aggregate, but is most often landfilled. As of 2013, 84 facilities are operating in 23 US states, processing approximately 30 mil-lion tons of MSW annually (Energy Recovery 56 MSW MANAGEMENT [ MAY 2014 ] Enerkem Demonstration Gasification & catalytic synthesis Non-recyclable MSW Ethanol Fulcrum BioEnergy Inc. Pilot Gasification & catalytic synthesis MSW Ethanol Plasco Energy Commercial Plasma gasification Non-recyclable MSW Electricity Covanta Energy-CLEERGAS Commercial modular gasification CLEERGAS MSW Electricity Tulsa, Oklahoma InEnTec technology center, Richland, Washington InEnTec Leasing Services LLC /Tepa EC Inc. Fulcrum BioEnergy, McCarran, Nevada Taunton, Massachusetts: under development InEnTec Commercial Plasma gasification MSW Syngas Interstate Waste Technologies Inc. Commercial Thermoselect gasification MSW Gasoline ©iStock.com/Turnervisual

Advances in Energy...From Waste

Ljupka Arsova and Harvey Gershman

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